Dual Nature of Radiation and MatterDual nature of radiationPhotoelectric effectHertz and Lenards observationsEinsteins photoelectric equation-particle nature of lightMatter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relationDavisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).SUMMARY1. The minimum energy needed by an electron to come out from a metal surface is called the work function of the metal. Energy (greater than the work function ( ) required for electron emission from the metal surface can be supplied by suitably heating or applying strong electric field or irradiating it by light of suitable frequency. 2. Photoelectric effect is the phenomenon of emission of electrons by metals when illuminated by light of suitable frequency. Certain metals respond to ultraviolet light while others are sensitive even to the visible light. Photoelectric effect involves conversion of light energy into electrical energy. It follows the law of conservation of energy. The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous process and possesses certain special features. 3. Photoelectric current depends on (i) the intensity of incident light, (ii) the potential difference applied between the two electrodes, and (iii) the nature of the emitter material. 4. The stopping potential (Vo ) depends on (i) the frequency of incident light, and (ii) the nature of the emitter material. For a given frequency of incident light, it is independent of its intensity. The stopping potential is directly related to the maximum kinetic energy of electrons emitted.5. Below a certain frequency (threshold frequency) 0, characteristic of the metal, no photoelectric emission takes place, no matter how large the intensity may be. 6. The classical wave theory could not explain the main features of photoelectric effect. Its picture of continuous absorption of energy from radiation could not explain the independence of Kmax on intensity, the existence of o and the instantaneous nature of the process. Einstein explained these features on the basis of photon picture of light. According to this, light is composed of discrete packets of energy called quanta or photons. Each photon carries an energy E (= h ) and momentum p (= h/), which depend on the frequency ( ) of incident light and not on its intensity. Photoelectric emission from the metal surface occurs due to absorption of a photon by an electron. 7. Einsteins photoelectric equation is in accordance with the energy conservation law as applied to the photon absorption by an electron in the metal. The maximum kinetic energy is equal to the photon energy (h) minus the work function 0 (= h0) of the target metal. Millikans first precise measurements confirmed the Einsteins photoelectric equation and obtained an accurate value of Plancks constant h. This led to the acceptance of particle or photon description (nature) of electromagnetic radiation, introduced by Einstein. 8. Radiation has dual nature: wave and particle. The nature of experiment determines whether a wave or particle description is best suited for understanding the experimental result. Reasoning that radiation and matter should be symmetrical in nature, Louis Victor de Broglie ttributed a wave-like character to matter (material particles). The waves associated with the moving material particles are called matter waves or de Broglie waves. 9. The de Broglie wavelength () associated with a moving particle is related to its momentum p as: = h/p. The dualism of matter is inherent in the de Broglie relation which contains a wave concept () and a particle concept (p). The de Broglie wavelength is independent of the charge and nature of the material particle. It is significantly measurable (of the order of the atomic-planes spacing in crystals) only in case of sub-atomic particles like electrons, protons, etc. (due to smallness of their masses and hence, momenta). However, it is indeed very small, quite beyond measurement, in case of macroscopic objects, commonly encountered in everyday life. 10. Electron diffraction experiments by Davisson and Germer, and by G.P. Thomson, as well as many later experiments, have verified and confirmed the wave-nature of electrons. The de Broglie hypothesis of matter waves supports the Bohr s concept of stationary orbits.